Ukrainian-Language Education in Galicia in the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Century: Source Study Analysis

Keywords: Galicia, source study analysis, classification of sources, Ukrainian language education


An important factor in the national movement of Ukrainians in Galicia in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century became the formation of Ukrainian-language primary and secondary education, the struggle for a Ukrainian university in Lviv, and so on. Since the chosen issue was studied mainly by specialists in pedagogy, its source study aspects, which contribute to the proper level of issue studying and critical analysis of sources, were left out of the scholars’ attention. This states the relevance of the paper.

The goal of the paper is to classify and critically analyze the sources describing the educational processes in Galicia in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century.

To perform this goal, we have identified the following groups of sources: 1) documents of an official nature (primarily legislative acts, decisions of the Crownland School Council and the Galician Diet; 2) statistical materials (documents of official and unofficial statistics); 3) social and political works (primarily the works of outstanding public and cultural figures); 4) sources of personal origin (autobiographies, memoirs, and letters of teachers); 5) materials of periodicals (newspaper and magazine articles on educational issues).

We believe that the most informative sources in this context are the School Law of May 14, 1869, which introduced compulsory secular and free education for all children, Organizational Outline of the Gymnasia and Technical Schools in Austria, adopted on September 15, 1849, and Organizational Charter for Male and Female Teachers’ Seminaries of 1871-1874 and 1909, documents of the Crownland School Council, collections of the Galician Crownland Statistical Bureau, reports on the activities of Ukrainian societies and educational institutions, social and political works of I. Franko and M. Hrushevskyi, autobiographies, memoirs, letters of Ukrainian teachers of the region, policy articles and statistical studies of the main periodicals of Galicia.

It has been found out that each source group has its own features and specifics, which were taken into account in the selection of research methods for studying the source complex on the history of the education of Ukrainians in the region. Their source importance is in the possibility to make a complete and comprehensive reconstruction of the educational processes of Galicia in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century and to uncover insufficiently studied aspects of this issue.


Baran, S. (1910). Z polia natsionalnoi statystyky halytskykh serednikh shkil [From the field of national statistics of Galician secondary schools]. Studii z polia suspilnykh nauk i statystyky, (Vol. 2, pp. 107-178). Lviv [in Ukraine].

Demkovych-Dobrianskyi, M. (2017). Pototskyi i Bobzhynskyi. Tsisarski namisnyky Halychyny 1903-1913 [Potocki and Bobzhinsky. Imperial governors of Galicia 1903-1913]. Rym: Vydannia Ukrainskoho Katolytskoho universytetu sv. Klymenta Papy. Retrieved from [in Ukraine].

Franko, I. (1885, April 1). Nashi narodni shkoly i yikh potreby [Our public schools and their needs]. Narod, 100-104 [in Ukraine].

Franko, I. (1981). Yak tse stalosia [How did it happen]. In Mishanych, O. V. & Pohrebennyk, F.P. (Comps.). Franko, I. Zibrannia tvoriv, (Vol. 34, pp. 372-378). Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukraine].

Franko, I. (1984). Shcho koshtuiut nashi shkoly [What cost our schools]. In Perkovskii, A. (Ed.). Franko, I. Zibrannia tvoriv, (Vol. 44 (1), pp. 145-150). Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukraine].

Franko, I. (1992). Skilky nas ye? [How many of us are there?]. In Derev’iankin, T. & Perkovskii, A. (Eds.). Franko, I. Zibrannia tvoriv, (Vol. 44 (2), pp. 312-317). Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukraine].

Hrushevskyi, M. (2002). Lysty z-nad Poltavy: lyst tretii [Letters from over Poltava: the third letter]. In Sokhan, P. (Ed.). Hrushevskyi, M. Tvory, (Vol. 1, pp. 160-187). Lviv: Svit [in Ukraine].

Kalakura, Ya.S. (Ed.) (2017). Istorychne dzhereloznavstvo [Historical source studies]. Kyiv: Lybid [in Ukraine].

Kachmar, V. (1999). Za ukrainskyi universytet u Lvovi. Ideia natsionalnoi vyshchoi shkoly u suspilno-politychnomu zhytti halytskykh ukraintsiv (kinets ХІХ – pochatok ХХ st.) [For the Ukrainian University in Lviv. The idea of a national higher school in the socio-political life of Galician Ukrainians (late XIX – early XX century]. Lviv [in Ukraine].

Kosheleva, N. (2000). Polska pedahohichna periodyka yak dzherelo vyvchennia istorii ukrainskoho shkilnytstva u Halychyni naprykintsi ХІХ – pochatku ХХ st. [Polish pedagogical periodicals as a source for studying the history of Ukrainian schooling in Galicia in the late nineteenth – early twentieth century]. Naukovi zoshyty istorychnoho fakultetu, 3, 93-96 [in Ukraine].

Koshelieva, N.V. (2002). Ukrainske shkilnytstvo i osvitnia polityka kraiovoi administratsii ta seimu v Halychyni (1890-1914 rr.) [Ukrainian schooling and educational policy of the regional administration and the Sejm in Galicia (1890-1914]. (Candidate’s thesis). Lviv [in Ukraine].

Kurliak, I. (1997). Ukrainska himnaziina osvita u Halychyni (1886-1918 rr.) [Ukrainian gymnasium education in Galicia (1886-1918)]. Lviv [in Ukraine].

Popovych, K. (1900). Tvory. Lysty [Works. Letters]. Lviv: Kameniar [in Ukraine].

Rikkardi, H. (2004). Pytannia ukrainskoho universytetu u konteksti ukrainsko-polskykh vidnosyn u Halychyni (seredyna ХІХ – pochatok ХХ st.) [Issues of the Ukrainian University in the Context of Ukrainian-Polish Relations in Galicia (middle 19th – early 20th centuries)]. Naukovyi visnyk Uzhhorodskoho universytetu. Seriia: Istoriia, 11, 11-26 [in Ukraine].

Sholohon, L. (2007). Zakonodavstvo v haluzi osvity i rozvytok shkilnytstva Halychyny druhoi polovyny ХІХ – pochatku ХХ st. [Legislation in the field of education and development of schooling in Galicia in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries]. Visnyk Kyivskoho natsionalnoho linhvistychnoho universytetu. Seriia «Istoriia, ekonomika, filosofiia», 13, 31-38 [in Ukraine].

Sholohon, L. (2008). Statystychni materialy ta zvity yak dzherelo do vyvchennia osvitnoho zhyttia ukraintsiv Halychyny druhoi polovyny ХІХ – pochatku ХХ st. [Statistical materials and reports as a source for studying the educational life of Ukrainians in Galicia in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries]. Naukovi zapysky Ternopilskoho natsionalnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu imeni V. Hnatiuka. Seriia: Istoriia, 3, 48-54 [in Ukraine].

Sholohon, L.I. (2015). Dzherela z istorii natsionalno-kulturnoho rukhu ukraintsiv Halychyny (1848-1914 rr.) [Sources on the history of the national-cultural movement of Ukrainians in Galicia (1848-1914)]. Ivano-Frankivsk: Symfoniia-forte [in Ukraine].

Stuparyk, B. (1994). Shkilnytstvo Halychyny (1772-1939 rr.) [Schooling in Galicia (1772-1939)]. Ivano-Frankivsk: Plai [in Ukraine].

Stynska, V. (2007). Systema shkilnytstva v Halychyni (kinets ХІХ – pochatok ХХ st.). [The school system in Galicia (late XIX – early XX century]. Ivano-Frankivsk: Hostynets [in Ukraine].

Varanytsia, A. (2013). Vchyteli narodnykh shkil u strukturi intelihentsii Halychyny druhoi polovyny ХІХ – pochatku ХХ st. [Teachers of public schools in the structure of the Galician intelligentsia of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries]. Novitnia doba, 1, 152-166 [in Ukraine].

How to Cite
Sholohon, L. (2021). Ukrainian-Language Education in Galicia in the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Century: Source Study Analysis. Eminak: Scientific Quarterly Journal, (4(32), 225-236.
Historiography, Source Study and Special Historical Disciplines